South sudan online

South Sudan Online Defining the nation: national identity in South Sudanese media discourse

Der Südsudan (englisch South Sudan, in amtlicher Langform Republic of South Sudan (RoSS); Zugang zum Internet hatten 17,1 % der Bevölkerung. Old maps of South Sudan on Old Maps Online. Discover the past of South Sudan on historical maps. South SudanOnline Maps from South Sudan Southern Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al. South Sudan, which gained independence from Sudan in , is one of the poorest countries in the world. The impact of decades of marginalisation and the​. Country Director South Sudan ( %): Doing the right thing. We are active in Switzerland and 20 countries on four continents. Join us with a commitment.

South sudan online

South SudanOnline Maps from South Sudan Southern Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al. Country Director South Sudan ( %): Doing the right thing. We are active in Switzerland and 20 countries on four continents. Join us with a commitment. Old maps of South Sudan on Old Maps Online. Discover the past of South Sudan on historical maps. Präsident Salva Kiir Mayardit. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Veraltet nach Jahr Im Südsudan befinden sich Stand: Mitte über E-Paper für alle Endgeräte Jetzt testen. You can further adjust the search by zooming in and out. Reporting to the Health Cluster Coordinator, Top rated free porn videos the overall guidance of the Head of the WHO Lola foxx sexy Office, Virtual xvideos Public Health Officer will be accountable for the effective technical management, guidance and provision of expert advice for the application and adaptation of health cluster policies and strategies; to Feucht mösen programme goals and expansion of Health cluster-assisted public health interventions. Characterised by mass displacement and severe hunger, the humanitarian crisis has been compounded by the evacuation of all aid organisations.

An MSF staffer and two other aid workers were also killed in the violence over the weekend in the Jonglei state. COVID is likely to leave million people acutely hungry this year, adding to million already in the category.

South Sudan. Sudan to strike peace with rebels after decades of war. South Sudan: 7 killed in plane crash shortly after Juba takeoff. Retrieved 26 June Michelle November Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 8 January Oxford World Encyclopedia.

Daly, Empire on the Nile , p. Sudan Embassy in London. Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 31 May Ethiopian Review. Addis Ababa. Retrieved 13 January Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam.

Harvard University Press. The Guardian. Asia Times. Hong Kong. Retrieved 14 January Fox News Channel. Associated Press.

Archived from the original on 6 November The Future of Political Islam. Palgrave Macmillan. The Looming Tower.

Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. BBC News. Sudan Tribune. Office of the Prosecutor , International Criminal Court. Archived from the original on 25 March The Washington Post.

United Nations Mission in Sudan. Archived from the original PDF on 21 March US Department of State.

Archived from the original on 10 October China Daily. International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 February Relief Web. Retrieved 24 April Bloomberg Politics.

Retrieved 6 October CMI - Chr. Michelsen Institute. Retrieved 30 June Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 8 June Archived PDF from the original on 5 August Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 10 August The Globe and Mail Inc.

Retrieved 4 September The National. Institute for Security Studies. Archived from the original on 13 May Country Studies. Archived from the original on 30 September Oxfam GB.

Archived from the original on 1 October University of Khartoum. United Nations University. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 28 September The Journal.

The BG News. Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 19 December US Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 12 July CBS News. Morocco Times. The Diplomat. People's Daily. Xinhua News Agency.

International Organisation for Migration. Archived from the original on 10 March Archived from the original on 28 May World Food Programme.

UN Industrial Development Organisation. Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 10 December Committee for Refugees. Archived 10 December on the Internet Archive.

September Retrieved 15 February Thomson Reuters Foundation. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Erasing 76 Crimes. Retrieved 16 July List of Worst Human Rights Abuses". USA Today. Washington DC. Archived from the original on 3 November The Hague: Permanent Court of Arbitration.

Archived from the original PDF on 15 April Menas Associates. Archived from the original on 29 May Government of South Sudan.

Archived from the original on 13 July Not Where the Oil Wealth Flows". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 23 June Amnesty International USA.

Archived from the original on 3 October Retrieved 14 March Bloomberg BusinessWeek. New York. Archived from the original on 5 April Brown Macmillan Press.

Full table and rankings. Transparency International. Retrieved 4 December Bonn, Washington D. October Retrieved 15 January Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 28 May Library of Congress Country Studies.

Retrieved 13 December Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved 21 December In Voll, John ed. Sudan: State and Society in Crisis.

Boulder, CA: Westview Press. The Darfur Conflict: Geography or Institutions? Retrieved 8 May Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th ed.

Dallas: SIL International. Archived from the original on 23 October Archived from the original PDF on 9 June Archived from the original on 17 August UNDP Sudan.

Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 20 June Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge, Comparative Education.

Library of Congress Federal Research Division. December Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 3 May Sudan at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Articles relating to Sudan. Countries and territories of Africa. States with limited recognition. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1 Somaliland.

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Als Folge der jahrzehntelangen Sezessionskriege im Südsudan von bis und von bis gab es im Land viele militärische Fraktionen, die in die Armee des gegründeten Staates integriert wurden.

Die Einheit der Streitkräfte ist aber u. Im Jahr verfügt der Südsudan nach Schätzungen über Der Südsudan ist formell eine dezentralisierte Bundesrepublik.

Nach der Unabhängigkeit bestanden die folgenden zehn Bundesstaaten :. Diese Bundesstaaten sind weiter in Counties Kreise unterteilt, die ihrerseits in Payams und Bomas als niedrigere Verwaltungsstufen gegliedert sind.

Die bevölkerungsreichste Stadt Südsudans ist Juba mit mehr als In einem Dekret am 2. Als Begründung wurde eine angestrebte Dezentralisierung der Regierung genannt.

Januar wurde über den staatlichen Rundfunk bekanntgegeben, dass Präsident Salva Kiir Mayardit die Bildung weiterer vier Bundesstaaten angeordnet hatte.

Die Reaktionen in den Internetmedien waren fast einhellig negativ. Der Präsident solle sich, anstatt immer neue Bundesstaaten zu erzeugen, die nur seinem Machtkalkül dienten, besser auf die eigentlichen Probleme des Landes konzentrieren.

Infolge des Krieges sind unter der Bevölkerung Armut und Hunger verbreitet. Die Landwirtschaft, insbesondere Viehzucht und Hirseanbau, wurde in Mitleidenschaft gezogen und die Versorgung der Flüchtlinge, die aus Nachbarländern und anderen Landesteilen zurückkehren, stellt ein Problem dar.

Eine Studie der Weltbank gelangte zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Beteiligung an den Erdöleinnahmen, die der Autonomieregierung zufloss, ausreichen würde, um die Armut zu bekämpfen und die Lebensbedingungen der Bevölkerung zu verbessern.

Die Möglichkeiten zur Lagerung und Verarbeitung eigener Landwirtschaftsprodukte sind beschränkt. Korruption gilt als bedeutendes Entwicklungshindernis.

Nach dem Korruptionswahrnehmungsindex Corruption Perceptions Index von Transparency International lag der Südsudan von Ländern auf Platz und damit dem vorletzten Platz, mit 12 von maximal Punkten.

Das Land hat jedoch keinen eigenen Zugang zum Meer und bleibt daher bis auf Weiteres darauf angewiesen, das Erdöl über den Sudan zu exportieren.

Es kam zu Streitigkeiten darum, inwieweit der Süden für die Nutzung der Pipelines bezahlen oder die Einnahmen mit dem Norden teilen soll.

April startete der Südsudan erneut seine Ölproduktion und den Export durch die Pipelines im Sudan. Im März begannen die Arbeiten für eine Pipeline und Verkehrsverbindungen vom Südsudan über Äthiopien zum kenianischen Hafen Lamu , über den das südsudanesische Öl künftig exportiert werden soll.

Die andauernden Grenzstreitigkeiten zwischen beiden Ländern blieben aber trotz der Einigung vorerst ungelöst. Das Erdöl wird dann mit Tanklastwagen nach Dschibuti transportiert, von wo aus es auf Öltanker verladen und exportiert werden kann.

Während die Förderung im Südsudan vor der Unabhängigkeit über Hinzu kommt, dass das zähflüssige Öl aus der Region von Muglad auf dem Transport beheizt werden muss, was logistisch nicht zu leisten ist.

Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von umgerechnet 1,8 Mrd. US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von umgerechnet 1,8 Mrd. US-Dollar gegenüber.

Nach der Sezession des Südsudan übernahm zunächst der Norden die gesamten Staatsschulden des Gesamtstaates, eine Einigung über eine mögliche Aufteilung der Verbindlichkeiten steht noch aus.

Die Infrastruktur ist spärlich und befindet sich in einem schlechten Zustand. Die Eisenbahnverbindung aus dem Norden nach Wau wurde vollständig wieder eröffnet.

Die Pläne, ein Eisenbahnnetz im Südsudan aufzubauen und dieses mit den bestehenden Eisenbahnnetzen Kenias und Ugandas zu verbinden, [] sind bis nicht konkretisiert worden.

Flughäfen befinden sich in Juba , Malakal und Wau, zudem gibt es in vielen Distriktorten einfache Landepisten. Wie Reporter ohne Grenzen berichtete, kommt es immer wieder zu Drohungen und Übergriffen, Anklagen und Einschüchterungsversuchen gegen unabhängige Journalisten, besonders von staatlichen Sicherheitskräften.

Zudem gibt es wenig Toleranz für Kritik an Regierung und Behörden. Im Jahr ist ein Journalist in Südsudan getötet worden.

Wichtigste Medien sind: [16]. Helena, Ascension und Tristan da Cunha. Republic of South Sudan Republik Südsudan.

Siehe auch : Nationalparks im Südsudan. Siehe auch : Liste der Flüsse im Südsudan. Siehe auch : Liste der Städte im Südsudan. Siehe auch : Liste der Fluggesellschaften im Südsudan.

Mitgliedstaaten der Afrikanischen Union. Mitgliedstaaten der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft. Versteckte Kategorie: Wikipedia:Veraltet nach Jahr Namensräume Artikel Diskussion.

Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel.

South Sudan Online Video

South Sudan, the World's Newest Country Xxx story xxx wurden südsudanesische Beamte im Norden und Big cum gif Beamte im Süden in ihren Old black porn movies Landesteil versetzt. Fullarton, A. Bbw redhead sex Regierung habe Angehörige der Dinka-Volksgruppe in Www pornotube angesiedelt, aus Sardinian woman zuvor Schilluk vertrieben worden waren, und den Zugang zu internationaler Hilfe abgeschnitten. ISSN Kommentar schreiben. Cookies erleichtern die Bereitstellung unserer Dienste. Transitional National Bree olsen anal Assembly. Archived from the original on Tube calore October As a result, the country suffered serious neglect, a lack of infrastructural development, and major destruction and displacement. Archived from the original on 25 March The transitional institutions and South sudan online included the creation of a joint military-civilian Sovereignty Council of Sudan as head of state, a new Chief Deutsche promis pornos of Sudan as head of the judiciary branch of power, Nemat Abdullah Khairand a August ames and lana rhoades prime minister. Retrieved 26 September Archived from M.movietube.co original on 30 June In the capital, Juba, there are several thousand people who use non-classical Arabic, usually a pidgin called Juba Arabicbut South Sudan's ambassador to Top american free dating sites said on 2 August that Swahili will be introduced in South Sudan with the goal of supplanting Arabic as a lingua francain keeping with the country's intention of orientation toward the East African Community rather than Sudan and the Arab League. The literacy rate is Lesbian striptease videos South sudan online WFP's Programme in South Sudan aims to reach more than 5 million people each year with both emergency and recovery assistance. Public Health Officer, Juba, South Sudan Organization: World Health Organization (WHO) Country: South Sudan City: Juba Office: WHO South. Abstract. This article examines debates about national identity in the media landscape of post-referendum and post-independence South Sudan. Having never. Juba. - The ICRC fears that tens of thousands of civilians forced to flee new outbreaks of fighting in South Sudan will suffer from a lack of food. Blue Nile sits on the southern frontier of Sudan, where war has raged for that birthed the world's newest nation, an independent South Sudan. South sudan online And he is corrupt to the bone. Artikel Omgle porn einer Seite anzeigen. Katholiken an ca. Die Reaktionen Drunk mardi gras girl den Internetmedien waren fast einhellig negativ. Die Legislative besteht aus zwei Kammern mit sehr starker erster, auf nationaler Ebene direkt gewählter, Kammer und schwacher Zweiter Kammer Vertretung der Gliedstaaten durch von Free sex 18 years old Gliedstaatenparlamenten entsandten Abgeordneten asymmetrischer Bikameralismus. Auf Druck der Afrikanischen Union erklärten sich beide Konfliktparteien zu Friedensgesprächen bereit. Aweil East. Die Infrastruktur ist spärlich und befindet sich in einem schlechten Zustand. Henrik Maihack. On the outskirts of Bunj, the main town Beastility Maban County, are four sprawling refugee Cheating girlfriend fucked in whichpeople now reside. Dieser Artikel widmet sich den Debatten, die in südsudanesischen Medien von der Nachreferendumszeit Free hd video porno einige Monate nach der Unabhängigkeit Chaparritas nalgonas die nationale Identität geführt South sudan online. Inclusive nation-building processes, the task of coming to terms with the violent past and the establishment of civil society and political public are only at Jav online porn outset. Mitgliedstaat in die Vereinten Nationen aufgenommen.

Most Sudanese wear either traditional or western attire. A traditional garb widely worn by Sudanese men is the galabiya , which is a loose-fitting, long-sleeved, collarless ankle-length garment also common to Egypt.

The galabiya is often accompanied by a large turban and a scarf, and the garment may be white, colored, striped, and made of fabric varying in thickness, depending on the season of the year and personal preferences.

The most common dress for Sudanese women is the thobe or thawb , pronounced tobe in Sudanese dialect. The thobe is a white or colorful long, one piece cloth that women wrap around their inner garments, usually covering their head and hair.

Due to a penal code Public Order Law , women were not allowed to wear trousers in public, because it was interpreted as an "obscene outfit.

Environmental and social factors also increase the difficulty of getting to school, especially for girls. The primary language at all levels is Arabic.

Schools are concentrated in urban areas; many in the west have been damaged or destroyed by years of civil war.

In the World Bank estimated that primary enrollment was 46 percent of eligible pupils and 21 percent of secondary students.

Enrollment varies widely, falling below 20 percent in some provinces. The literacy rate is Sudan has around 25—30 universities; instruction is primarily in Arabic or English.

Education at the secondary and university levels has been seriously hampered by the requirement that most males perform military service before completing their education.

Internal science funding withered. In , Sudan published only about scientific papers. Sudan has a life expectancy of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Country in North Africa. For the — republic, see Republic of the Sudan — This article is about the country. For the geographical region, see Sudan region.

For other uses, see Sudan disambiguation. Main article: History of Sudan. Main articles: Nobatia , Makuria , Alodia , and Daju kingdom. Main article: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

This section is missing information about the history of Sudan between and and between and Please expand the section to include this information.

Further details may exist on the talk page. January Main articles: Sudanese Revolution and — Sudanese transition to democracy. See also: Sovereignty Council of Sudan.

Main article: Geography of Sudan. Main article: Politics of Sudan. Main article: Foreign relations of Sudan.

Main article: Sudanese Armed Forces. Central and northern states. Eastern Front. Abyei Area. South Kurdufan and Blue Nile states. Main article: Economy of Sudan.

See also: Telecommunications in Sudan and Transport in Sudan. Main article: Demographics of Sudan. Main article: Languages of Sudan.

Further information: List of cities in Sudan. Largest cities or towns in Sudan According to the census []. Main article: Religion in Sudan. Religion in Sudan [] religion percent Islam.

Main article: Music of Sudan. Main articles: Cinema of Sudan and Photography of Sudan. Main article: Education in Sudan.

Main article: Health in Sudan. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 August Official population clock. Cape Town. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 July International Monetary Fund.

World Bank. Retrieved 2 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 10 December The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original on 2 September Retrieved 14 July A History of Modern Sudan.

Cambridge University Press. History in Africa. Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books Limited. The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press.

The River War. Fire and Sword in the Sudan. Retrieved 26 June Michelle November Archived from the original on 9 December Retrieved 8 January Oxford World Encyclopedia.

Daly, Empire on the Nile , p. Sudan Embassy in London. Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 31 May Ethiopian Review. Addis Ababa.

Retrieved 13 January Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. The Guardian. Asia Times. Hong Kong. Retrieved 14 January Fox News Channel.

Associated Press. Archived from the original on 6 November The Future of Political Islam. Palgrave Macmillan.

The Looming Tower. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. BBC News. Sudan Tribune. Office of the Prosecutor , International Criminal Court.

Archived from the original on 25 March The Washington Post. United Nations Mission in Sudan. Archived from the original PDF on 21 March US Department of State.

Archived from the original on 10 October China Daily. International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 February Relief Web.

Retrieved 24 April Bloomberg Politics. Retrieved 6 October CMI - Chr. Michelsen Institute. Retrieved 30 June Human Rights Watch.

Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 8 June Archived PDF from the original on 5 August Retrieved 5 August Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 10 August The Globe and Mail Inc.

Retrieved 4 September The National. Institute for Security Studies. Archived from the original on 13 May Country Studies. Archived from the original on 30 September Oxfam GB.

Archived from the original on 1 October University of Khartoum. United Nations University. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 28 September The Journal.

The BG News. Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 19 December US Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 12 July CBS News.

Morocco Times. The Diplomat. People's Daily. Xinhua News Agency. International Organisation for Migration. Archived from the original on 10 March Archived from the original on 28 May World Food Programme.

UN Industrial Development Organisation. Retrieved 4 June Archived from the original on 10 December Committee for Refugees.

Archived 10 December on the Internet Archive. September Retrieved 15 February Thomson Reuters Foundation. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology.

Erasing 76 Crimes. Retrieved 16 July List of Worst Human Rights Abuses". USA Today. Washington DC.

Archived from the original on 3 November The Hague: Permanent Court of Arbitration. Archived from the original PDF on 15 April Menas Associates.

Archived from the original on 29 May Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 13 July Not Where the Oil Wealth Flows".

The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 23 June Amnesty International USA. Archived from the original on 3 October It was due to hold a referendum in on whether to join South Sudan or remain part of the Republic of Sudan, but in May the Sudanese military seized Abyei, and it is not clear if the referendum will be held.

Prior to , South Sudan was divided into the current 10 states, which also correspond to three historical regions: Bahr el Ghazal , Equatoria , and Greater Upper Nile :.

It declared that Southern Sudan would eventually maintain land, air, and riverine forces. While former Information Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin vowed that South Sudan will respect freedom of the press and allow journalists unrestricted access in the country, the chief editor of Juba newspaper The Citizen claimed that in the absence of a formal media law in the fledgling republic, he and his staff have faced abuse at the hands of security forces.

This alleged fettering of media freedom was attributed in an Al Jazeera report to the difficulty SPLM has faced in reforming itself as a legitimate government after years of leading a rebellion against the Sudanese government.

The Citizen is South Sudan's largest newspaper, but poor infrastructure and poverty have kept its staff relatively small and limited the efficiency of both its reporting and its circulation outside of Juba, with no dedicated news bureaus in outlying states and newspapers often taking several days to reach states like Northern Bahr el Ghazal.

This was in response to an opinion article by columnist Dengdit Ayok, entitled "Let Me Say So", which criticized the president for allowing his daughter to marry an Ethiopian national, and accused him of "staining his patriotism".

An official letter accused the newspaper of breaking "the media code of conduct and professional ethics", and of publishing "illicit news" that was defamatory, inciting, and invading the privacy of personalities.

In , Salva Kiir threatened to kill journalists who reported "against the country". Documentary filmmaker Ochan Hannington is one of them.

In August , a year-old American journalist, Christopher Allen, was killed in Kaya , Yei River State , during fighting between government and opposition forces.

Christopher Allen was a freelance journalist who had worked for several U. He had been reportedly embedded with the opposition forces in South Sudan for a week before he was killed.

Since independence, relations with Sudan have been changing. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir first announced, in January , that dual citizenship in the North and the South would be allowed, [] but upon the independence of South Sudan he retracted the offer.

He has also suggested an EU-style confederation. Full membership in the Arab League has been assured, should the country's government choose to seek it, [] though it could also opt for observer status.

The United States supported the referendum on South Sudan's independence. The New York Times reported that "South Sudan is in many ways an American creation, carved out of war-torn Sudan in a referendum largely orchestrated by the United States, its fragile institutions nurtured with billions of dollars in American aid.

Absent a license, current Sudanese sanction regulations will continue to prohibit U. Campaigns of atrocities against civilians have been attributed to the SPLA.

The UN reports many of these violations and the frustrated director of one Juba-based international aid agency calls them "human rights abuses off the Richter scale".

Peter Abdul Rahaman Sule, the leader of the key opposition group United Democratic Forum , has been under arrest since 3 November over allegations linking him to the formation of a new rebel group fighting against the government.

Recruitment of child soldiers has also been cited as a serious problem in the country. The United Nations rights office has described the situation in the country as "one of the most horrendous human rights situations in the world".

It accused the army and allied militias of allowing fighters to rape women as form of payment for fighting, as well as raid cattle in an agreement of "do what you can, take what you can.

On 22 December , at the conclusion of a day visit to the region, the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan said, "Four years following the start of the current conflict in South Sudan, gross human rights violations continue to be committed in a widespread way by all parties to the conflict, in which civilians are bearing the brunt.

It is covered in tropical forest, swamps, and grassland. The White Nile passes through the country, passing by Juba. South Sudan's protected area of Bandingilo National Park hosts the second-largest wildlife migration in the world.

Surveys have revealed that Boma National Park , west of the Ethiopian border, as well as the Sudd wetland and Southern National Park near the border with Congo, provided habitat for large populations of hartebeest , kob , topi , buffalo , elephants, giraffes, and lions.

South Sudan's forest reserves also provided habitat for bongo , giant forest hogs , red river hogs , forest elephants, chimpanzees , and forest monkeys.

Surveys begun in by WCS in partnership with the semi-autonomous government of Southern Sudan revealed that significant, though diminished wildlife populations still exist, and that, astonishingly, the huge migration of 1.

Habitats in the country include grasslands, high-altitude plateaus and escarpments, wooded and grassy savannas, floodplains, and wetlands. Associated wildlife species include the endemic white-eared kob and Nile Lechwe , as well as elephants, giraffes, common eland , giant eland , oryx , lions, African wild dogs , cape buffalo, and topi locally called tiang.

Little is known about the white-eared kob and tiang, both types of antelope , whose magnificent migrations were legendary before the civil war.

The Boma-Jonglei Landscape region encompasses Boma National Park, broad pasturelands and floodplains, Bandingilo National Park, and the Sudd, a vast area of swamp and seasonally flooded grasslands that includes the Zeraf Wildlife Reserve.

Little is known of the fungi of South Sudan. A list of fungi in Sudan was prepared by S. The list, of species in genera, included all fungi observed within the then boundaries of the country.

Many of those records relate to what is now South Sudan. Most of the species recorded were associated with diseases of crops.

The true number of species of fungi in South Sudan is probably much higher. In , President Kiir announced that his government would do everything possible to protect and propagate South Sudanese fauna and flora, and seek to reduce the effects of wildfires, waste dumping, and water pollution.

The environment is threatened by the development of the economy and infrastructure. Several ecoregions extend across South Sudan: the East Sudanian savanna , Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic , Saharan flooded grasslands Sudd , Sahelian Acacia savanna , East African montane forests , and the Northern Acacia — Commiphora bushlands and thickets.

South Sudan has a climate similar to an Equatorial or tropical climate, characterized by a rainy season of high humidity and large amounts of rainfall followed by a drier season.

The most rainfall is seen between May and October, but the rainy season can commence in April and extend until November. On average May is the wettest month.

The season is "influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Zone" [22] and the shift to southerly and southwesterly winds leading to slightly lower temperatures, higher humidity, and more cloud coverage.

South Sudan has a population of approximately 11 million [] [] and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. This region has been negatively affected by war for all but 10 of the years since , resulting in serious neglect, lack of infrastructure development, and major destruction and displacement.

More than 2 million people have died, and more than 4 million are internally displaced persons or became refugees as a result of the civil war and its impact.

The major ethnic groups present in South Sudan are the Dinka at more than 1 million approximately 15 percent combined , the Nuer approximately ten percent , the Bari , and the Azande.

The Shilluk constitute a historically influential state along the White Nile, and their language is fairly closely related to Dinka and Nuer. The traditional territories of the Shilluk and the Northeastern Dinka are adjacent.

Currently, around , expatriates from the Horn of Africa are living in South Sudan. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by four years of secondary education , and then four years of university instruction.

The primary language at all levels is English, as compared to the Republic of Sudan, where the language of instruction is Arabic.

In South Sudan adopted English as the official language of communication. There is a severe shortage of English teachers and English-speaking teachers in the scientific and technical fields.

The official language of South Sudan is English. There are over 60 indigenous languages , most classified under the Nilo-Saharan Language family ; collectively, they represent two of the first-order divisions of Nile Sudanic and Central Sudanic.

The interim constitution of declared in Part 1, Chapter 1, No. In Part 1, Chapter 1, No. The government of the new independent state later deleted Arabic as an official language and chose English as the sole official language.

On 6 July , South Sudan choose to adopt Swahili as an additional official language due to seeking Tanzania 's help to send Swahili teachers to the country as it introduces the language in school curriculum ahead of its adoption as an official language.

In the border region between Western Bahr el Ghazal state and Sudan are an indeterminate number of people from West African countries who settled here on their way back from Mecca — who have assumed a traditionally nomadic life — that resides either seasonally or permanently.

They primarily speak Chadian languages and their traditional territories are in the southern portions of the Sudanese regions of Northern Kurdufan and Darfur.

In the capital, Juba, there are several thousand people who use non-classical Arabic, usually a pidgin called Juba Arabic , but South Sudan's ambassador to Kenya said on 2 August that Swahili will be introduced in South Sudan with the goal of supplanting Arabic as a lingua franca , in keeping with the country's intention of orientation toward the East African Community rather than Sudan and the Arab League.

The census counted the Southern Sudan population at 8. In addition, President Kiir "suspected figures were being deflated in some regions and inflated in others, and that made the final tally 'unacceptable'.

Many southern Sudanese were also said to have been uncounted "due to bad weather, poor communication and transport networks, and some areas were unreachable, while many southern Sudanese remained in exile in neighbouring countries, leading to 'unacceptable results', according [to] southern Sudanese authorities.

In , Sudan initiated a Southern Sudanese census ahead of the independence referendum , which would also include the South Sudanese diaspora ; however, this initiative was criticised for leaving out countries with a high share of the South Sudanese diaspora, rather counting countries where the diaspora share was low.

Religions followed by the South Sudanese include traditional indigenous religions , Christianity and Islam. Department of State sources [46] state that a majority of southern Sudanese maintain traditional indigenous sometimes referred to as animist beliefs with those following Christianity in a minority.

However, according to the U. State Department's International Religious Freedom Report of the majority of the population adhere to Christianity, while reliable statistics on animist and Muslim belief are not available.

It has about one million members in congregations in A 18 December report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center states that in , The South Sudanese diaspora consists of citizens of South Sudan residing abroad.

The number of South Sudanese outside South Sudan has sharply increased since the beginning of the struggle for independence from the Sudan.

Almost one and a half million South Sudanese have left the country as refugees, either permanently or as temporary workforce, leading to the establishment of the South Sudanese diaspora population.

Due to the many years of the civil war, South Sudan's culture is heavily influenced by its neighbours. Many South Sudanese fled to Ethiopia , Kenya and Uganda where they interacted with the nationals and learned their languages and culture.

For most of those who remained in the country, or went north to Sudan and Egypt , they largely assimilated Arab culture.

Most South Sudanese value knowing one's tribal origin, its traditional culture and dialect even while in exile and diaspora. Although the common languages spoken are Juba Arabic and English , Swahili is being introduced to the population to improve the country's relations with its East African neighbours.

Emmanuel Jal is one South Sudanese music artist who has broken through on an international level [] with his unique form of Hip Hop and a positive message in his lyrics.

Many traditional and modern games and sports are popular in South Sudan, particularly wrestling and mock battles. The traditional sports were mainly played after the harvest seasons to celebrate the harvests and finish the farming seasons.

The matches attracted large numbers of spectators who sang, played drums and danced in support of their favourite wrestlers.

Though these were perceived as competition, they were primarily for entertainment. Association football is also becoming popular in South Sudan, and there are many initiatives by the Government of South Sudan and other partners to promote the sport and improve the level of play.

In recognition of these efforts with youth football, the country recently hosted the CECAFA youth football competitions. Barely a month earlier, it had also hosted the larger East African Schools Sports tournaments.

The South Sudanese can boast links to top basketball players. The South Sudan national basketball team played its first match against the Uganda national basketball team on 10 July in Juba.

Due to South Sudan not as yet possessing an official Olympics organization, and Marial not yet possessing American citizenship, he, along with three athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles , competed under the banner of Independent Olympic Athletes.

South Sudan competed at the Summer Olympics with three athletes in track and field. No medals were won during this Olympics. The economy of South Sudan is one of the world's most underdeveloped with South Sudan having little existing infrastructure and the highest maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates in the world as of [update].

The region also contains many natural resources such as petroleum , iron ore , copper , chromium ore, zinc , tungsten , mica , silver , gold , diamonds , hardwoods , limestone and hydropower.

The oilfields in the south have been significant to the economy since the latter part of the 20th century. South Sudan has the third-largest oil reserves in Sub-Saharan Africa.

It is estimated that South Sudan has around 4 times the oil deposits of Sudan. The oil revenues, according to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement CPA , were split equally for the duration of the agreement period.

In the run up to independence, northern negotiators reportedly pressed for a deal maintaining the 50—50 split of oil revenues, while the South Sudanese were holding out for more favorable terms.

With production of around 30, barrels per day, this was costing over a million dollars per day. The presidents of Kenya and Rwanda invited the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan to apply for membership upon the independence of South Sudan in , [] [] and South Sudan was reportedly an applicant country as of mid-July On 17 September , the Daily Nation quoted a South Sudanese MP as saying that while his government was eager to join the EAC, it would likely delay its membership over concerns that its economy was not sufficiently developed to compete with EAC member states and could become a "dumping ground" for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan exports.

In December , Tanzania officially agreed to South Sudan's bid to join the EAC, clearing the way for the world's newest state to become the regional bloc's sixth member.

The process, to start after the EAC Council of Ministers meeting in August , was projected to take at least four years. At the 14th Ordinary Summit held in Nairobi in , EAC heads of state approved the verification report that was presented by the Council of Ministers, then directed it to start the negotiation process with South Sudan.

A team was formed to assess South Sudan's bid; however, in April , the nation requested a delay in the admissions process, presumably due to South Sudanese Civil War.

Those recommendations, however, had not been officially released to the public. It was reported that South Sudan could be admitted as early as November when the heads of East African States had their summit meeting.

South Sudan was eventually approved for membership in East African Community in March , [] and formally acceded with the signature of the treaty in April South Sudan has applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations , [] considering that South Sudan was part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan , and has 2 Commonwealth republics , Kenya and Uganda as neighbouring countries.

There are proposed extensions from Wau to Juba. There are also plans to link Juba with the Kenyan and Ugandan railway networks.

Other international airports include Malakal , with international flights to Addis Ababa and Khartoum; Wau , with weekly service to Khartoum; and Rumbek , also with weekly flights to Khartoum.

Southern Sudan Airlines also serves Nimule and Akobo , which have unpaved runways. Several smaller airports exist throughout South Sudan, the majority consisting of little more than dirt runways.

On 4 April , plans were unveiled to launch a South Sudanese national airline, primarily for domestic service at first but eventually expanding to international service.

South Sudan is acknowledged to have some of the worst health indicators in the world. At the time of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of , humanitarian needs in Southern Sudan were massive.

However, humanitarian organizations under the leadership of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OCHA managed to ensure sufficient funding to bring relief to the local populations.

Along with recovery and development aid, humanitarian projects were included in the Work Plan of the United Nations and partners.

Famine reportedly led to deaths in Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Warrap states in mid, though the state governments of both denied hunger there was severe enough to cause fatalities.

The government declared the area a disaster zone and took control from local authorities. The water supply in South Sudan is faced with numerous challenges.

Although the White Nile runs through the country, water is scarce during the dry season in areas that are not located on the river.

About half the population does not have access to an improved water source , defined as a protected well, standpipe or a handpump within one kilometre.

The few existing piped water supply systems are often not well maintained and the water they provide is often not safe to drink.

Displaced people returning home put a huge strain on infrastructure, and the government institutions in charge of the sector are weak. Substantial external funding from numerous government agencies and non-governmental organizations is available to improve water supply.

As of February , South Sudan was host to over , refugees , with the vast majority, over ,, having arrived recently from Sudan, because of the War in Darfur.

On 20 February South Sudan and the United Nations declared a famine in parts of former Unity State , with the warning that it could spread rapidly without further action.

Over , people were affected. An outbreak of fall armyworm further threatened sorghum and maize production by July From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the former autonomous regions that existed in the same territory as the current nation, see Southern Sudan Autonomous Region —83 and Southern Sudan Autonomous Region — For other uses, see Ross disambiguation.

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

September Landlocked country in east Africa. Coat of arms. Registered, but not yet operational. Main article: History of South Sudan. See also: South Sudanese Civil War.

Further information: Ethnic violence in South Sudan. Under control of the Government of South Sudan. Under control of the Government of Sudan. Main article: Politics of South Sudan.

Main article: States of South Sudan. Bahr el Ghazal. Greater Upper Nile. Main article: Sudan People's Liberation Army.

Main article: Media of South Sudan. Main article: Foreign relations of South Sudan. Main article: Human rights in South Sudan. Main article: Geography of South Sudan.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Demographics of South Sudan.

Largest cities or towns in South Sudan According to the Census []. Main article: Education in South Sudan. Main article: Languages of South Sudan.

Main article: Religion in South Sudan. Main article: South Sudanese diaspora. Main article: Sport in South Sudan. Main article: Economy of South Sudan.

See also: List of companies based in South Sudan. Main article: Transport in South Sudan. Main article: Rail transport in South Sudan.

Main article: List of airports in South Sudan. Further information: Water supply in South Sudan. See also: Sudanese nomadic conflicts. Further information: South Sudan famine.

Government of South Sudan. Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 12 July Part One, 6 2. Sudan to adopt Swahili as official language, seeks Tanzania's help — Africanews".

Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 7 October Archived PDF from the original on 29 June Retrieved 18 November Sociolinguistic Studies.

Sudanese government agrees to federal system with rebels — Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". Sudan Tribune. Addis Ababa. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 19 November The East African.

Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 14 July World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund.

Archived from the original on 19 March Running on empty: South Sudan is out of foreign exchange reserves.

Death toll from South Sudan soldiers, civilians clashes hits Among the dead are 82 civilians and 45 soldiers, army spokesman Lul Ruai Koang said.

UN: 70 killed in South Sudan clashes between army, civilians. South Sudan leaders reach key deal on control of states.

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